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Cardiff, the capital city of Wales

History of Cardiff

Archaeological excavations have unearthed evidence of people having settled in Cardiff in as early as 6,000 BC. The Romans established a fort here following the Roman Conquest of Britain. In 1081 AD, following the Norman Conquest, work began on a castle within the walls of the Roman fort, under the order of King William I of England (William the Conquerer). Much of Cardiff, including Cardiff Castle was destroyed in 1404 by Owain Glyndŵr, (Prince of Wales, Lord of Glyndyfrdwy, and Cynllaith Owain) during the Glyndŵr Rebellion (1400 - c.1415). Following a rebuilding, Cardiff established itself as a busy port in the Middle Ages. From 1830 onwards, Cardiff grew rapidly following the building of the dock by the 2nd Marquis of Bute. At it's peak, Cardiff port (known as Tiger Bay) was the busiest port in the world. City status was granted to Cardiff by King Edward VII in 1905 and it was proclaimed the capital city of Wales in 1955. In 1948, the National Health Service (NHS) was launched. It's creation was led by the then-Minister for Health, Aneurin Bevan, who hailed from Tredegar, near Cardiff. Following the 1997 Welsh Devolution Referendum, the National Assembly for Wales was established in Cardiff Bay (1999).

Cardiff City scene
Cardiff arcades


Caerdydd (Pronunciation: Kyer-deeth)


54.2 sq. miles




Predominantly English and Welsh.

102,400 people (28.5% aged 3 or older) in Cardiff can speak Welsh


"Y ddraig goch ddyry cychwyn"

(English: "The red dragon will lead the way"

Cardiff, and Wales more generally, are steeped in history and a unique culture that sets it apart from other nations in the United Kingdom.

Cardiff Castle, a medieval castle and Victorian Gothic revival mansion sits at the heart of the city. The castle frequently hosts cultural and social events, concerts, and other major events, including a banquet for national leaders at the 2014 NATO Summit.

Cardiff was a finalist for the European Capital of Culture in 2008.

The BBC National Orchestra of Wales and Welsh National Opera are based in Cardiff.  Cardiff has produced many well-known acts such as Ivor Novello and Dame Shirley Bassey. Other acts hailing from Wales include Sir Tom Jones, Manic Street Preachers, and Stereophonics.

Cardiff is also a seven-time host of the National Eisteddfod

The Principality Stadium in Cardiff is home to the Welsh national rugby team and hosted the final of the 1999 Rugby World Cup, several matches in the 2015 Rugby World Cup, and the clash between Juventus and Real Madrid in the 2017 UEFA Champions League final.

Cardiff has many excellent bars and restaurants and a welcoming LGBTQ+ scene. It has many green areas within the city, including Bute Park, Cathays Park, Parc Cefn Onn, The Wenallt, and the Taff Trail.

Alexandra Gardens, Cardiff
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